The Forum of Free Enterprise is a non-political organization founded in 1956 by A. D. Shroff, and has been established to educate public opinion in India on free enterprise and a democratic way of life. The Forum publishes booklets to further its objects. The following booklet titled “Identity, Markets and Social Welfare” was published on November 5, 2009 and is the textual reproduction of the A D Shroff Memorial Lecture delivered by Mr. Nandan Nilekani. Mr. Nilekani addresses the paradoxical situation of the Indian economy where impressive rates of economic growth coexist with massive poverty. He also examines the lack of effective solutions in tackling this issue, including the flaws and failures of the various welfare schemes that the government has launched. He discusses the potential impact of launching Unique Identity project in redressing this very issue by enabling government actors to directly deal with the intended beneficiary of welfare programmes and thus increase effectiveness of the same.