The Forum of Free Enterprise is a non-political organization founded in 1956 by A. D. Shroff and has been established to educate public opinion in India on free enterprise and a democratic way of life. The Forum publishes booklets to further its objects. The following booklet titled “Population Planning in India: Pitfalls and New Challenges” was published on November 14, 1993, and was authored by Prof. Ashish Bose. The author critically analyzes population planning in India while highlighting new challenges. He argues that India’s family planning programme is a miserable failure, comparable to the failure of India’s public sector. He opines that the time has come to dismantle our vertical family planning programme which is over-bureaucratised, insensitive to women and dehumanised and introduce a new programme based on effective people’s participation at the grassroots level through Panchayati Raj Institutions. He highlights the massive gap between policy and implementation in India. He argues that poor performance in various other social indicators like literacy has also adversely affected population planning. He goes on to trace various family planning initiatives taken up by the government over the years. Towards the end, the author highlights some new challenges like growing demographic imbalance, widening gender disparity, mindless consumerism and the rise of religious fundamentalism which will negatively impact population planning.