The following booklet titled “What Ails India” was published on January 15, 1990, and was authored by Russi Mody. This article is a convocation speech given by the author at one of the prestigious IITs. The author in this article asserts that allegiance to the nation should be our principal task and lays down some of the few formidable challenges that faced India in the 1990s. He acknowledges population growth, corruption, work efficiency, and ecology to be some of the main problems of India and believes economic success to be the only positive thing in the country. The author mentions that for sustainable growth and development, the country should be left unfettered from bureaucratic control and concludes with a brief note on effective management.