This booklet contains the textual reproduction of the sixth Nani A Palkhivala Memorial Lecture delivered by P Chidambaram, the then Home Minister, on the topic ‘The Emerging Challenges to Civil Society’. It was published by the Nani A Palkhivala Trust in October 2009. Mr. Chidamabaram identifies the need for the emergence of a common idea of India as a challenge that the nation faces. Without such a common ideal, the diversity of the nation may rip it apart. He suggests two basic criteria that need to be met to achieve this. The first is to provide equality of opportunity, which by itself would resolve many tensions and bridge social differences that persist. Secondly, better growth models need to be introduced as the trickle down model is not very efficient nor inclusive. He also talks about the challenge of internal security, which includes modernising the police force and adapting them with the changing times. Other issues threatening internal security is that of secessionist tensions in the North-Eastern states, rise of the Naxalite movement, and cross border terrorism.